English -> 1848 What to consider when emigrating to North America and Australia.

This is a modified copy of the official leaflet of the Central=Association for Emigration in Cologne and Düsseldorf as well as the "Information for German Emigrants" attached there, both from 1848.

Although the actual ship prices are not registered, the data are very interesting because they provide detailed information on how an emigration to North America or Australia was organised in the middle of the previous century. In other words, what the emigrant could give into foreign hands for payment and what he had to take care of himself on the spot.

I found the text as a leaflet in the file "Generalia, concerning: Regulations on (...) Emigration", which is kept in the Koblenz State Main Archives in the holdings 655.14 (Kastellaun City Archive) under signature 208. It includes pages 82 to 85verso.

The original can be found as indicated above.

of the Central=Verein für Auswanderung
in Cologne and Dusseldorf,
Approved by the high state government with the assurance of adequate support from the consuls on this side,
as the Minister=Resident in the United States of North=America,
founded by the undersigned.

The purpose of the association is to help those who want to emigrate and contact us
1) with advice and any relevant instructions.
2) transfer them in the cheapest way from certain collection points to seaports and from there with the best equipped vessels at fixed takeover prices, including catering on the ship to the transatlantic ports.
3) to work in the ports of America in particular to ensure that, upon arrival, emigrants receive, free of charge, any advice and useful guidance on the speed of acquisition, settlement and appropriate re-routing.

1. It secures the crossing for passengers registered to move to the transatlantic countries, either from the collection point or, if desired, from Bremen.
2. The takeover prices shall be normalised at all times in accordance with the prevailing conditions, including free transport to the place of embarkation, free meals during the sea voyage, as well as the American head= or hospital money.
This protects emigrants against the over-the-top fraud and unforeseen expenses that usually make a seemingly cheap crossing a highly costly one.
In addition, through the free meals on seagoing vessels, the association provides a guarantee for perfectly healthy and adequate food, the proper procurement of which is subject to the strictest control by the State.
3. Taking into account possible accidents and ensuring the emigrants, the association has recognized it as a duty to secure them the paid passage fees and also a sum of 20 Thaler Prussian Courant per capita by assecurance (at its expense) in the event that the ship was to be hit by an accident on the voyage, which would make it incapable of continuing it.
This shall first cover the costs of rescuing and maintaining the passengers, as well as the passage fees necessary for their onward transport, or, if the shipowner, correspondent or ship's charterer should prefer the termination of the contract, the amounts concerned shall be paid to the emigrant.
4. Since an accident can at least cause the possibility of a complete loss of the baggage of the emigrant, the association has decided, in order to prevent the helplessness of the emigrants, to pay every emigrant over 16 years of age a sum of 25 thalers Prussian Courant in this case. This amount shall be paid to the persons concerned on arrival in the ports designated by the crossing contract, after the identification of the claim, documented by the authority of the damaged vessel, by the designated insurance company on behalf of the association in accordance with the provisions of the Bremish regulations.

No compensation will be paid for partial loss of baggage as well as loss due to risk of war.

Section 5. The emigrants are embarked in Bremen, until they are transported with their luggage either by rail or steamship at our expense. From Bremen, passengers are driven with their luggage in concealed river ships free of charge to the port, where the free catering of the ship begins immediately upon arrival at the expense of the association; until then, however, passengers have to take care of their own food.

Emigrants' liabilities and general comments.
1. The transfer agreements are issued by the signed members of the association or its agents.
2. At the conclusion of the contract, each emigrant has to pay a surcharge of 10 thalers Prussian Courant or 17 Florin 30 Rhenish cruisers, but at his choice the remaining amount must be paid either at our central office or at the house in Bremen designated in the transfer agreement.
The contracts are valid only for the persons designated therein and are not transferable.
3. In the event that individual emigrants or larger societies wish to secure a fixed crossing for a certain period of time, they must notify us or our agents in good time, indicate the number of heads and send in the surcharge.
4. The emigrant is obliged to arrive at the collection point for transport to Bremen on the day designated to him and to comply with the order of the association, otherwise the paid hand money is lost.
5. Upon arrival in Bremen, the same person must pay the transfer fee in accordance with paragraph 2 minus the surcharge already paid to the Comptoir in Prussian Courant or in any type of money that we have designated.
6. Even the waiver of the surcharge cannot relieve him of the obligation to pay the rest=passage=money upon arrival in Bremen.
7. Straw bags or mattresses, pillows and blankets, spoons, knives, forks, food and drinking utensils must be procured by the emigrant himself, but these items are best obtained in Bremen at fixed and very cheap prices.
The sleeping places are set up for passengers on the ships.
8. The transport of the emigrants and their luggage from Bremen to the port takes place freely on concealed river ships and passes the ordinary luggage without freight. For each person, 20 cubic feet are calculated, i.e. a box 3 feet long, 3 feet high and 2 feet wide.
9. The effects required during the journey are best packed into small cushions, as the larger ones are often loaded into the lower rooms of the ship.
10. It is recommended to pack the effects in boxes with flat lids and not in the suitcase and under no circumstances in barrels.
11. They must be designated by the name of the owners; they have to pay attention to the luggage itself.
12. The age of children under 12 years of age must be proven by birth certificate.
13. Each passenger must be provided with a passport for foreign countries or with a traveling book provided by the authority.
14. Only healthy persons with no physical infirmity are accepted for crossing; Criminals and convicts are excluded.
15. Tobacco smoking and open fire in the intermediate deck is prohibited; just like carrying matchsticks and powders.
16. Weapons shall be given to the captain during the voyage upon request.
17. Passengers are obliged to comply with the orders of the captain and helmsman on time during the sea voyage and to abstain from all gifts from spirits and the like to the sailors.
18. They are also obliged to comply with the laws of the overseas states relating to assessment and immigration.
19. Passengers must have the funds needed to travel inland when they land in America.
In order to avoid losses of money, we advise to convert the cash into American money, dollars, five=francs, Napoleond'or, Ls. Sterlings before departure.
The association and its agents will always obtain it at the cheapest price; also, by association with the most prestigious houses, it is possible for the association to procure bills to America at any amount.
Passengers for the cabins of the sailing ships we advise, because of the limited space, to register at least 14 days before departure and to specify the number of persons with the addition of the age, because this is decisive for the takeover price.
The surcharge, per capita 30 Thaler Prussian Courant, must be sent in at the registration franco.
The travellers receive bed and screen in the cabin, as well as food at the captain's table, but have to procure wine and other luxury items themselves, and in addition to the travel expenses to pay the head= or hospital=money.
On the 1st and 15th of each month, a mail steamship usually sails from Bremen to New York, and although the seats are usually occupied long beforehand, we are in the case of being able to provide the same preferably, if you register in time.
The passage is usually for the
First-class cabin about 230 thalers, the second-class cabin about 120 thaler Prussian Courant.

The association undertakes to provide insurance against the danger of the sea on goods, money or securities at the lowest costs.

The advantages of the German port of Bremen, which alone carried more than 30,000 emigrants in 1847, compared to the foreign places Rotterdam, Antwerp and Havre in terms of the assessment of emigrants, are the friendly treatment to be expected on the ship, the particularly good and plentiful equipment with aids for 13 weeks per capita and the cheap passage, as well as the measures for the safety of passengers issued by the authorities on the basis of , which are generally so well known and obvious that it is superfluous to go into this in a more specific way.
A fairly large number of well-equipped, large and beautiful ships, built in the most permanent way and provided with high and spacious ceilings in particular for the passenger journey, no other port in Germany nor the aforementioned countries has any other port.

In addition, the Bremen ships, under the direction of German captains, have an excellent reputation as fast gliders and in every other respect.
Finally, the association asks the expatriate compatriots to always contact him or his agents, who can be described by the public papers, directly in postage-free letters when asking questions about their journey and the contracts to be concluded.
He warns emigrants not to get involved here or in America with unknown persons who urge emigrants to get cheap travel opportunities, for example. This kind of intrusive leader is mostly about bruising, of which, unfortunately, the saddest evidence is available.

Although it cannot be our intention to encourage emigration, we believe in the current shaping of the political conditions in the fatherland, as well as in the ever more clear need for regulated monitoring of emigration, which allows a high state government to provide the necessary protection in a worthy manner, to find sufficient motives for our enterprise.

To carry this out in a dignified and appropriate manner, we have made ourselves the strict task and are therefore happy to give room for hope that our outgoing compatriots will turn to us with confidence.

Cologne and Dusseldorf, 16 September 1848.


from ___________ to _______________ 18__

to New=York and Philadelphia
to Baltimore
to New=Orleans
to Galveston, Texas
to Quebeck in Canada
to San Francisco in California
to Port Adelaide in South=Australia

Intermediate deck or cabin
Adult with family

Adults without children pay 2 Thaler Prussian Courant per capita for intermediate deck more. Infants who are less than one year old when they embark, according to the birth certificate, travel completely free, but have to pay for the trip to New York and Philadelphia per head 3 thalers 15 Silverpenny Prussian Courant in Bremen.
Cabins=Passengers to America have to pay the bounty in Bremen themselves, namely to New York, Philadelphia, New Orleans and Galveston 5 Taler 20 SilverPenny Prussian Courant, Baltimore 2 Taler 8 SilverPenny Prussian Courant, Australia free.

The above takeover prices include:
1) Free transport from the collection points to Bremen with the relevant third class railways including 100 pounds of luggage.
From there in concealed river ships to the port, respectively on board the seagoing ship.
2) The tranloading of the effects to and from the railways and steamships and on board the seagoing vessel. At the railway station in Bremen, passengers have to monitor their effects and bring them into the riverboat, which costs a maximum of 5 silver penny per colli.
3) The bounty or hospital money to be paid in America by any immigrant.
4) Free medicine in case of illness.
5) The insurance of travel money and another 20 Thaler Prussian Courant per head.
6) The insurance sum ad 25 Thaler Prussian Courant for the total loss of the effects in the event of a ship's accident, according to the Bremish regulations, and with the exception of the risk of war.
7) Free food on the sea voyage.
On the Rhein=steamships, emigrants receive breakfast, lunch and dinner without a drink for 17 silver penny or 1 Florin on request.
8) For travellers from more distant areas whose journey to Bremen requires an overnight stay, the precaution must be taken that they are affected by the . agents on the resting stations night camps and depletion at fixed and cheap prices. For Berlin, these are included.
9) Free stay and food on the seagoing ship for two days after arrival in the overseas ports.

Any information that the immigrants wish from the correspondents of the association in the landing sites will be given the same in the most readily.

Any change in the takeover prices can be found in the Bureaux of the association and the agents.

Business=Local in Cologne, Friedrich Wilhelm Straße number 6 and 8
Business=Local in Düsseldorf, Hochstraße 914.

Information for German emigrants.

The Central=Association is prompted to publish from time to time the authentic news from the transatlantic countries, as well as everything related to emigration, for the general benefit.

The following may be used for information for the time being:

Commercial or wage ratios.
1. With America's very cheap soil and productivity, such as the lack of human hands to build it, it is especially farmers and day laborers who in America always find unequally higher acquisition with equal effort.
A field of Congressland (1 3/4 acres) is usually sold by the government at 1 1/4 dollars. The daily wage of the workers amounts to an average of 1 dollar per day. The working time is from 6 a.m. to 7 a.m.; at noon an hour of rest.
Weekly expenses are approximately 3 dollars; it is therefore possible for the worker to raise 3 dollars in public. Among the craftsmen, there are especially blacksmiths, carpenters, carpenters, tanners, saddlers, Wagner, gardeners (in cities), bricklayers, stonecarvers (at the railway), spinning wheel= and wood shoemakers (in new settlements) who find their livelihood safest in America.
Emigrants are strongly advised to learn a light craft beforehand.  Maids are very sought after; In many parts of America, they receive 8 dollars in salary per month in addition to food, housing and gifts.
Seamstresses easily earn 3/4 dollars or a thaler per day with mediocre dexterity.

Taking effects with you.
2. The following items are particularly recommended for take-away to America: right warm duvets in tightly laced bags; for the people travelling to the northwest (Wisconsin) a few long boots to tightly lace up the thighs to use in the high, damp grass; other boots and shoes are cheap. Quite strong house screen (cloth) is only available in America at very expensive prices. Cotton shirts and bedclothes, on the other hand, are very cheap. Above all, you should equip yourself with strong, practical work dresses.
Porcelain and glassware, a good watch, are recommended for take-away. The same applies to strong door= and window bands and fittings, good ropes, as well as small carpentry equipment. On the other hand, all other iron matter is left behind. Although some are more expensive there, they are much better and last a lifetime.
The arable equipment is also better bought in America, where they are more appropriate for use.
The effects are packed in boxes, but their weight must not exceed 200 pounds, as stated in the Prospectus, so that two men can carry them. There must be a handle at each end.
Such items to be used on the journey shall be carried in smaller lockable suitcases or boxes, not in barrels, for easier use.
Too much of a lot of effects are particularly annoying for immigrants in Texas and for those who are about to make a long inland trip inland.

Sale of the property before departure.
3. Real estate and heavy furniture are the safest to sell to emigrants before they leave. It is advisable to convert the proceeds from the sales and other cash into American money and to reserve only the necessary sum in here viable coin for the travel expenses.

Conclusion of contracts before departure.
4. In the interests of emigrants, it cannot be stressed urgently enough that it makes no sense at all to travel to the ships without preparation in order to obtain a voyage. First of all, they often have to live and feed there for a long time at their own expense until they find a secure crossing, but then the shipping prices in the seaports rise with every rush of emigrants without contracts, which caused some of our compatriots to be unusually pulled out to the last penny; for once he has arrived there with all his hand, the emigrant must give himself into the hands of the scamers or brokers and meet every requirement, if he does not want to bear the costs of a return journey of his homeland.

Exchange of money.
3. When changing money, it should be noted that 1 dollar is equal to 1 thaler 12 silver penny. - 5 dollars are 7 thalers ; 100 cents per 1 dollar - 1 cent is 5 pennies. To Bremen you bring as hard thalers, gold or Prussian cash register instructions as possible, because you only lose money when changing small money, e.g. to ducats. On previous ad, the association takes over the turnover in American money or the issue of American bills to the most prestigious houses in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia or New Orleans.

Departure from home, overnight stay, instruction of the hostel.
6. On departure from the homeland, if an overnight stay on the route to Bremen seems necessary, the emigrants will be assigned a suitable night quarters at the expense of the association by our agents at the designated places.

Monitoring the effects on the trip.
7. It is strongly recommended that emigrants label their effects with their names and monitor them on their journey as in Bremen when they are tranloaded from the railway to the river ship itself and properly.

Insurance of the securities.
8. If emigrants want to insure their effects from the collection point to Bremen, they have to give an exact specification of the value and pay 1 percent of the latter.
According to paragraph 4 of the Prospectus, the association assures each emigrant in the event of the complete loss of its effects due to shipwreck at its expense 25 thalers per head for the sea voyages from Bremen to the destination. If a higher insurance is requested for this purpose, the same can be granted with a precise indication of the content and value of each Collos against remuneration of 1 1/2 percent of the specified value. Of all the insurance companies, the agents must notify us immediately.

Arrival in Bremen.
9. In Bremen, passengers will contact our correspondent upon arrival. There, after the hand money receipt has been cut off from the contract, they will receive a ship acceptance certificate after payment of the remaining cash, which also contains the address of our correspondent in the American port. The ship and the day of departure to the port are assigned to them, and there begins the free

Warning of fraud.
10. Already in Bremen, the influence on the emigrants begins under many promises; However, all these pretenses are usually intended for bruising and passengers cannot be warned enough about them. The permanship of these fraudsters is so bad that they often join the emigrants on the stations outside Bremen to assign them cheap hostels or shipping opportunities.
In order to preserve the interest of the emigrants in this respect as well, the association has taken the precaution that the emigrants are assigned by our agents before departure a proper hostel, whose good and honest host receives the passengers at the station along with their luggage, at cheap and established prices. If, despite all precautions, there are established complaints, we kindly ask you to contact our correspondent directly.

Appropriate departure time
11. The best time to leave for Texas and New Orleans is March and April, and especially the autumn from August.
To the rest of america, every season is suitable for departure, except for the winter months.

Quantity of food.
12. With reference to the Prospectus, we note that for each of our passengers, the following food is loaded for ships to the ports of the United States of America:
1) an orthoft on water, to New Orleans or Texas 1 1/4 Orhoft.

[Orthoft, Orhoft = Oxhoft; old volume measure for liquids. In Bremen: 217.4 liters.]

2) on meat 33 pounds, and on bacon, if salted, 13 pounds, or smoked 10 pounds.
3) on bread 65 pounds.
4) on butter 5 pounds.
5) on flour, beans, peas, barley, rice, plums, sour cabbage 36 pounds.
6) on potatoes 60 pounds.
7) on syrup 1 1/2 pounds.
8) on coffee 1 1/2 pounds.
9) Cichorien 1/4 pounds.
10) Tea 1/4 pounds.
11) 2 quart vinegar.

For the sick and children a sufficient amount of sage, wine, sugar, plums, grits and medication according to the ratio of the number of passengers. By the way, every traveller is free to take some refreshments and popular food with him.

13. In many cases, emigrants, especially from southern Germany, want self-catering, which is also permitted in foreign ports. It is probably the worst side of German emigration through those ports. The relatively small quantity of prescribed food, which may suffice on a short journey, would lead to starvation on a longer journey, would not be a superfluous supply for payment on board. Experience has also long since taught that it is certainly not possible to leave the emigrants to provide their food, because they often circumvent the law and take even less provisions with them than is required of them.
This necessarily causes a shortage during a sea voyage, the emigrant is starving or plundering his companions, and all order on the ship is disappearing. Also, the cooking of so many passengers on the small stove often causes great difficulties and is often so annoying for the people not used to sea voyages that they prefer to forgo a meal, especially in stormy weather, rather than expose themselves to the effort and danger associated with the preparation of the same.

14. With regard to the sea passage, abstention of spiritual beverages is likely to reduce seasickness. Consumption of salted meat, on the other hand, is beneficial and very refreshing. The evil usually settles after a few days, and when it is over, one has both food and joy at the same time. That is why, for the sake of temporary inconvenience, courage must not be allowed to sink and all passengers must help to ensure that the Community remains in a good mood at all.

Arrival in overseas ports.
15. The greatest threat to the property of the emigrants lies in the arrival in the North American ports. In the outsized joy of reaching the new homeland, all too often any caution is ignored. The arriving ship is beset by a crowd of greedy people, who with the most enticing promises welcome the newcomers in fatherland dialect as compatriots.
While one advertises his hostel for the South Germans as a compatriot, another claims to be a connoisseur of immigrants from Saxony, the Marche and Silesia.
All too often these offers are heard. The apparent fairness of the prices is prompting the newcomers to stay longer in port cities. But if they want to leave, they are offered a cheap travel opportunity under all sorts of pretenses, one day at a time. The end of this is usually the complete loss of cash, the pledge of the securities as compensation for the first extremely courteous but later relentlessly hard compatriot and landlord, and finally poverty and exposure of all means.
The shortest stay in the port cities of America cannot be recommended enough for immigrants. They would do well to leave their effects on board the ship during the two days offered to them, as well as to take their food there, thereby saving all costs in the expensive landing sites.

Registrations in the port cities.
16. Immediately upon arrival, the immigrants register at the address given to them or at the German Society. There they are willingly given the cheapest travel opportunity for the interior. After that, the luggage is taken to the designated railway or other travel opportunity.

Customs inspection.
17. Customs inspection when the securities are outsourced is fast. Anything taken away is duty-free as soon as it is intended for its own use, not as a merchant's property for sale.

Purchase of land.
18. The greatest caution is necessary when buying land. It is very important to see whether the country is not exposed to frequent flooding, whether the fresh water is present at all seasons or whether the springs and streams dry up during the summer heat. The choice of a place to establish is such that there is a market and appropriate means of connection nearby.
The fertile land consists of prairie= and forest soil. The nature of the latter is best judged by the trees growing there. The greater the mixture of the different tree species, the stronger their growth, their branching and leafing, the more excellent are always the properties of the soil.
The best way to buy is to go to the Land Sales Office; there you get a provisional receipt and a little later the actual certificate of ownership, signed by the President.
When buying farms, the next judge of the peace gives a certificate that the letter of purchase really says to the farm that no debts are on it, that the title of ownership is correct when the tax is paid. We urgently need to discourage the purchase of American lands here in Europe, as most of the swindles are associated with it and it will be difficult to properly assess the increased land here.
For passengers who want to travel to the West, we advise the state of Wisconsin, because the German element is predominant there and the climate is also the most similar to the local one.
19. Carpenters, tapestry, all craftsmen whose productivity enclaws luxury, is best placed to take on permanent employment when they move into the larger cities in the interior of America; the port cities are very crowded with craftsmen of all trades.

Acquisition of civil rights.
20. The acquisition of American civil rights as soon as possible is of great importance. All that needs to be done for this purpose is to make a simple statement to the next judge of the peace or district judge at the aforementioned place of residence that one wishes to be accepted as a citizen of the United States. After five years, you are then a real citizen.

Reduction of passage money for children.
21. Very often someone claims a reduction in the fare for the children with us, because this is the case in the ports of Antwerp, Rotterdam and Havre.
In response, we must reply that the difference in fares for transport via foreign ports is arbitrary and artificial. For the chartering of a ship, either a round sum or a certain price is paid for the number of passengers to be assumed, without any differences in age.
Infants alone are excluded from this.
If 60 Florin for the adult and 48 Florin for the non-adult are demanded in those ports, it can be assumed with confidence that the surplus of the former price is above the latter pure supplement.
A price reduction for children can only occur in German ports if a lower mass of provisions are allowed for the same. Rarely, however, the saving will be more than 5 thalers. Any other reduction can only be achieved by increasing the amounts for adult emigrants by as much as they are humiliated by children, as in foreign ports.

South Australia.
22. A large part of the emigration has turned to South Australia in recent years. The city of Adelaide has grown into one of the most thriving port cities in 10 years. A glorious Italian climate favours the fertility of the soil of South Australia.
The real winter is unknown there, only in mountainous areas there are light night frosts. All fruits thrive well, as does cattle breeding. The somewhat mediated and active countryman quickly finds his secure livelihood there. The lowest daily wage is 2 thalers. Shoemakers, tailors, turners, carpenters, blacksmiths, bricklayers and carpenters are very sought after; But most sought after miners, as well as all the technicians, especially with the daily new discoveries of rich erves and coal mines.
Maids probably earn 3 thalers per week and also find very good reception because the ratio of the male to female population is 3 to 1.
With its strong viticulture, winegrowers and pines keep a high wage.
Merchants, scholars, lawyers and doctors find little merit there. All hand=, but no head work is sought.
The cost of the crossing is usually 80 thalers for the intermediate deck, for children two thirds.
The Colony belongs to the Crown of Great Britain.

Cologne and Dusseldorf, December 1848.

Der Central-Verein der Auswanderung.
C. Fremery.   J. A. Roeder.   L. Spiegelthal

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